|Seals and Sphragistic
The term "seal" (German Siegel)
originates from the roman "sigillum" (sign) of a diminutive
of "signum" (small picture, figurine). In the 13th
century "sigel" emerges in Middle High German that
was either developed from the nation roman "sigillio",
or borrowed direct from the roman from "sigillum" or
educated from the verb "sigelen" .
Use of the seal
Seals have been confessed since the early
cheer cultures. In the form of the rolling seals, a seal coil,
already gave it him in Mesopotamia (Greek "Mesopotamía":
the two river country, the large landscape is meant between the
rivers Euphrates and Tigris in front Asia, in that the alto oriental
Babylonian and Assurian empires resulted). Since the 8th century
before Chr. the stamp seal sat down through .
The seal were produced from hard stone, semi-precious stone or
metal . Seal engraved into semi-precious stones are today
in the form of signet rings employed. Wax, colorless and colored,
metal served as a seal cloth and since the 16th century, sealing
wax. Sealing wax consisted initially of shellac (rosin of the
scarlet elimination product of the lacquering sign louse), rosin
(violin bow resin which results during oil of turpentine extraction),
turpentine (distilled pine resin) and dyes. Today may be employed
artificial resins .
The seals are by means of a signet ring or a Petschaft (seal
stamp) were in the warm tender seal cloth cooled down hard then.
The term "Petschaft" comes from the Slovakian "pecat"
and appears in the case of the Styrian Ulrich of Lichtenstein
(died 1275) in "verpetschaten" (sealing). The imperial
office in Prague scattered the word. From the Middle High German
"shaft" resulted "petschaft" .
The majesty seals showed the picture of the crowned, with their
providing insignias, rulers on the throne in former times. The
mundane princes led a rider seal. Only later were employed coat
of arms as a seal picture .
Use of the seal
Seals were used as recognition and legalization
signs or a lock from papers before unauthorized acknowledge or
While the seal still had no legal importance with the Merovingians
(Franconian royal sex of early Middle Ages), was it with the
Carolingians (after Karl the gross, crowned 800 to the emperor,
designated European dynasty) the most important and decide legalization
means. Since the 9th/10ht century bishops and abbots and from
the 11th/12th century too mundane princes used to seal their
documents. With it got seal angled in the case with clergy and
round with the mundane ones for use .
|For lack of other better closing
device engineering, letters were sealed inaccessible in former
times. With introduction of the automatic stamp and postal address
read machines at the letter post at the end of the 20th century,
use is no more to be recommended by means of sealing wax of shut
letters since the seal is destroyed by the machines.
Today may be official seal normally employed as color stamps
or too as adhesive plaques (e.g. admission stamp on the vehicle
sign). To emboss the seal by means of a press into the document
in the case of official documents, e.g. diplomas, is it today
picture of a petschaft
picture of a seal press
||Kluge, Friedrich: Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschenSprache,21.
Auflage, Walter de Gruyther, Berlin, New York (1975)
||Meyers Großes Taschenlexikon: B.I. Taschenbuchverlag, Mannheim,Leipzig,Wien, Zürich